Moving on…

Long time no post… because plenty has been happening.  I got done with the PhD in December 2012, spent one year  ”planning” my next move and here I am finally.

I got a new job as a Faculty member in a university.  How I will like to start posting my experiences in this new world!  I say “how I will like”, because I am not sure of how much honesty I am prepared to show to the whole wide world through these pages.

So it needs some thinking about.

I may be back sooner than you think :)

Citation format

I’m using the APA format (American Psychology Association)

I have a hard time being consistent so I’m placing here what I found on the Internet for easy reference.  Credits below.

1. Use of contractions

Without ibid.                                                                     With ibid.

Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 42                                             Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 42

Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 42                                             Ibid.

Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 87                                             Ibid., p. 87

Milton, Paradise Lost, p. 117                                           Milton, Paradise Lost, p. 117

Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 87                                             Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 87

Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 42                                             Ibid., p. 42



2. Citation

a) Books

References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.

No Author or editor, in print

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster.

One author, in print

Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Company.

Two authors, in print

Frank, R. H., & Bernanke, B. (2007). Principles of macro-economics (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

b) Essays or chapters in edited books

References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following elements: essay or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, book editor(s), book title, essay or chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.

One author

Labajo, J. (2003). Body and voice: The construction of gender in flamenco. In T. Magrini (Ed.), Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean (pp. 67-86). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

2 Examples:

Schein, E.H., (1993).  The Academic as Artist: Personal and Professional Roots.  In A. G. Bedian (Ed.), Management Laureates: A Collection of Autobiographical Essays (pp. 31-62). Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press.

Schein, E. H. (2006). From Brainwashing to Organizational Therapy: A Conceptual and Empirical Journey in Search of “Systemic” Health and a General Model of Change Dynamics. A Drama in Five Acts. Organization Studies, 27, 2, 287-301.

Question: In the example 2i. above how do I cite a page of the article in question?  At the end of the entire reference?  I know the article span is from page 31 to page 62.  What if I specifically want to cite a reference from page 35, should I indicate it?  On what part of the citation?

Two editors

Hammond, K. R., & Adelman, L. (1986). Science, values, and human judgment. In H. R. Arkes & K. R. Hammond (Eds.), Judgement and decision making: An interdisciplinary reader (pp. 127-143). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

[Source (except for the Schein’s examples}:


Posting again after an eternity.

I hope I’ll be allowed to defend soon.

I have two thesis supervisors.  The second one just sprung a surprise at the last minute.  Fortunately, it was only a question of structure not form but I won’t have to be racking the brain too much only that it has taken me the better part of 3 days to implement them.  I’m still on it.

Sleepless nights

Now I know the full meaning of this phrase…

By the way I’m sorry I have not made any posts in a while.  I have rather been making the “posts” in my dissertation which is due for submission in a few weeks.  I shall shortly put out some snippets here that I find interesting.

I will be happy to make contact with anyone with similar research interests.


Where to place footnote with reference to closing quotation marks

This is often confusing for me, so I hope it will help someone else.

In order to put consistency in my work, I went in search of this on the Internet and found someone asking a similar question.  See source below, but here was the question:

I insert alot of quotes into my text, and I like to use footnotes for citations. My question is where should I put the footnote relative to the closing quotation mark. For example, I might write somethin like: The Court held that “the alleged counduct, if true, would be a serious violation of the statue.” Should I put my footnote reference before or after the closing quotation mark?

Thanks for your help!!!!

And here was the best answer:

Official answer from the Bluebook:
Word search “inside,” and you will find the following statement:

Footnote Call and Punctuation Arrangement, 1/2/2008 (Related Section: R1.1 )

Footnotecalls always go outside quotation marks. Colons and semicolons also gooutside. The proper order is: quotation mark, semicolon, footnote call,colon. Commas, however, go inside quotation marks.”


Culture defined – other authors

Geert Hofstede defines culture as “the collective programming of the human mind that distinguishes the members of one human group from those of another.”[1]

Campbell on his part defines culture as “a complex web of information that a person learns and which guides each person’s actions, experiences, and perceptions”.[2]

By its nature a “definition” ought to delimit a concept to such an extent that the hearer understands the truth of the reality completely.  At first glance, none of the above two definitions does this for “culture”.  While the first one seems even more abstract and ambiguous than the term being defined, describing it as “collective programming”, the second defines it a a web of “information”, not specific enough to embrace the meaning of the concept.

Banks defines culture as “the behavior, patterns, symbols, institutions, values, and other human made components of the society”.[3]  And finally, Patricia Marshall defines it as “consistent ways in which people experience, interpret, and respond to the world around[4].

While we may argue that none of these definitions seem to convey the meaning of culture completely, there are common elements to be found among them.  Consider Banks’ “patterns”, and Marshall’s “consistent ways”.  Some of these elements include norms, values, behaviour patterns, rituals and traditions.  These terms are not synonymous and are to be found in one form or another in various definitions of culture.  They are manifestations of culture and express some aspects of it, but culture itself (the essence) is much deeper. Furthermore all of these have in common the concept of “sharing” in that to be considered culture, they have be found in many members of a group in the same way, over a period of time.

[1] Di Geert H. Hofstede, “Culture’s consequences: international differences in work-related values”.  SAGE, 1984 – 327 (p. 21)

[2] D. E. Campbell, Choosing Democracy, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice‐Hall, 2000), 38.

[3] J. Banks, Teaching Strategies for Ethnic Studies, 5th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice‐Hall, 1984), 52.

[4] Marshall, P. L. (2002). Cultural Diversity in Our Schools. Belmont: Wadsworth.

Culture defined – by Edgar Schein

A pattern of shared basic assumptions learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, which has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems” (Schein, 2010)

Edgar Schein’s approach – April 24

I had a meeting with my director this morning.  Next meeting is on Friday May 4.

I’m supposed to aim to finish my chapter 2, which is a summary of all Schein’s thoughts on Culture.

I admit I’ve been confused at some point.  In the last several days, I’ve had a sort of mental block trying to proceed.  Today I think I got some light.  Here let me summarize some aspects of Schein’s thoughts.

His approach to culture.

1.  Structural analysis of culture
- Artifacts
- Espoused values
- Basic assumptions

2.  Contents of culture, which he also called “dimensions”
- Nature of the content (dimensions)
- Position along the dimensions

Thus, if one aspect of content is the use of “authority” within an organization, this is the “nature”, but its position can refer to whether the organization is either “authoritarian” or “egalitarian”, sort of situation at both ends of the spectrum.

What is the origin of the contents of culture?  In deciding this Schein opted to consider it from a functional perspective.  Every organization faces the two archetypical problems external adaptation and internal integration.

As Schein defines the level of “Basic assumptions” as the essence of culture, every organization thus develops Shared Basic Assumptions around these two dimensions.

a) Problems of External Adaptation – adapting to its external environment in order to survive and growth.  This is concerned with developing a common consensus on  issues related to mission and strategy, goals, means to achieve the goals, how to measure attainment of goals, and means to correct deviations from goals.

b) Problems of Internal Integration – harnessing all members and their characteristics towards organizational survival and growth.  This include developing a common language and conceptual categories; determining group boundaries and the criteria for inclusion and exclusion from the group; distribution of power, authority and status; developing norms of trust, intimacy, friendship and love; defining and allocating rewards and punishments; explaining the “unexplainable”.

3.  Deeper Cultural Assumptions

Schein mentions that one of the most significant reasons why there is so much inaccuracies in the definitions of culture is that often practitioners do not distinguish between whether they are treating of culture within an organization (organizational culture) , within an entire country, or an ethnic group (macro culture), within an occupational distribution (occupational culture); within a subset of occupational groups in an organization (subculture) or within a group in an organization brought together for a specific task (micro culture).

The shared basic assumptions mentioned in ’2′ above are therefore to be found in relation to the organization.

We treat here now of “deeper culture assumptions” that are to be found at the Macro level (country, ethnic group, etc).

These include:

- Assumptions about the nature of reality and truth
- Assumptions about the nature of time
- Assumptions about the nature of space
- Assumptions about the nature of human nature, human activity and human relationships.