Citation format

I’m using the APA format (American Psychology Association)

I have a hard time being consistent so I’m placing here what I found on the Internet for easy reference.  Credits below.

1. Use of contractions

Without ibid.                                                                     With ibid.

Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 42                                             Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 42

Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 42                                             Ibid.

Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 87                                             Ibid., p. 87

Milton, Paradise Lost, p. 117                                           Milton, Paradise Lost, p. 117

Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 87                                             Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 87

Thwe, Green Ghosts, p. 42                                             Ibid., p. 42



2. Citation

a) Books

References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.

No Author or editor, in print

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster.

One author, in print

Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Company.

Two authors, in print

Frank, R. H., & Bernanke, B. (2007). Principles of macro-economics (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

b) Essays or chapters in edited books

References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following elements: essay or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, book editor(s), book title, essay or chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.

One author

Labajo, J. (2003). Body and voice: The construction of gender in flamenco. In T. Magrini (Ed.), Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean (pp. 67-86). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

2 Examples:

Schein, E.H., (1993).  The Academic as Artist: Personal and Professional Roots.  In A. G. Bedian (Ed.), Management Laureates: A Collection of Autobiographical Essays (pp. 31-62). Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press.

Schein, E. H. (2006). From Brainwashing to Organizational Therapy: A Conceptual and Empirical Journey in Search of “Systemic” Health and a General Model of Change Dynamics. A Drama in Five Acts. Organization Studies, 27, 2, 287-301.

Question: In the example 2i. above how do I cite a page of the article in question?  At the end of the entire reference?  I know the article span is from page 31 to page 62.  What if I specifically want to cite a reference from page 35, should I indicate it?  On what part of the citation?

Two editors

Hammond, K. R., & Adelman, L. (1986). Science, values, and human judgment. In H. R. Arkes & K. R. Hammond (Eds.), Judgement and decision making: An interdisciplinary reader (pp. 127-143). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

[Source (except for the Schein’s examples}:

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